Richard Harrigan
Lab Website:

Current Positions

  • Associate Professor, Division of AIDS, Medicine
  • Director, Laboratory Program, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS
  • Glen-Hillson Professor in Clinical HIV Virology, The University of British Columbia
  • CIHR/GSK Research Chair in HIV/AIDS at the University of British Columbia

Research Interests

The primary goal of the basic research program is to provide novel virological and drug information for HIV-infected British Columbians receiving antiretroviral therapy. Key priorities include understanding and preventing HIV drug resistance, the development, application and evaluation of innovative cost-effective laboratory tests that monitor HIV therapy response and antiretroviral drug toxicities, improving drug adherence through the development and application of laboratory-based tools that accurately detect and report non-adherence, investigation of the relationships between human and viral genetic factors and treatment outcomes, and therapeutic drug monitoring. The research laboratory team includes individuals with expertise in virology, genomics, chemistry, molecular biology and quality assurance systems.


  1. Dahabieh MS, Ooms M, Brumme C, Taylor J, Harrigan PR, Simon V, Sadowski I. Direct non-productive HIV-1 infection in a T-cell line is driven by cellular activation state and NFkappaB. Retrovirology. 2014 Feb 7;11(1):17.
  2. Swenson LC, Cobb B, Geretti AM, Harrigan PR, Poljak M, Seguin-Devaux C, Verhofstede C, Wirden M, Amendola A, Boni J, Bourlet  Comparative Performances of HIV-1 RNA Load Assays at Low Viral Load Levels: Results of an International Collaboration.T, Huder JB, Karasi JC, Zidovec Lepej S, Lunar MM, Mukabayire O, Schuurman R, Tomazic J, Van Laethem K, Vandekerckhove L, Wensing AM; International Viral Load Assay Collaboration. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Feb;52(2):517-23.
  3. Swenson LC, Min JE, Woods CK, Cai E, Li JZ, Montaner JS, Harrigan PR, Gonzalez-Serna A. HIV drug resistance detected during low-level viraemia is associated with subsequent virologic failure. AIDS. 2014 Jan 21.
  4. Gonzalez-Serna A, Min JE, Woods C, Chan D, Lima V, Montaner JS, Harrigan PR, Swenson LC. Performance of HIV-1 Drug Resistance Testing at Low Level Viraemia and Its Ability to Predict Future Virologic Outcomes and Viral Evolution in Treatment-Naive Individuals. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jan 14.
  5. Sluis-Cremer N, Huber KD, Brumme CJ, Harrigan PR. The E138A substitution in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase decreases in vitro susceptibility to emtricitabine as indicated by competitive fitness assays. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Jan 13.
  6. Cescon A, Kanters S, Brumme CJ, Lepik KJ, Forrest JI, Hull M, Samji H, Nosyk B, Harrigan PR, Hogg RS, Montaner JS. Trends in Plasma HIV-RNA Suppression and Antiretroviral Resistance in British Columbia, 1997-2010. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Jan 1;65(1):107-14.
  7. Swenson LC, Chui CK, Brumme CJ, Chan D, Woods CK, Mo T, Dong W, Chapman D, Lewis M, Demarest JF, James I, Portsmouth S, Goodrich J, Heera J, Valdez H, Harrigan PR. Genotypic analysis of the V3 region of HIV from virologic nonresponders to maraviroc-containing regimens reveals distinct patterns of failure. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Dec;57(12):6122-30.
  8. Hogg RS, Nosyk B, Harrigan PR, Lima VD, Chan K, Heath K, Wood E, Kerr T, Montaner JS. Rates of new infections in British Columbia continue to decline at a faster rate than in other Canadian regions. HIV Med. 2013 Oct;14(9):581-2.
  9. Swenson LC, Dong WW, Mo T, Demarest J, Chapman D, Ellery S, Heera J, Valdez H, Poon AF, Harrigan PR. Use of cellular HIV DNA to predict virologic response to maraviroc: performance of population-based and deep sequencing. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Jun;56(11):1659-66.
  10. Gonzalez-Serna A, Lima VD, Montaner JS, Harrigan PR, Brumme CJ. “Test-and-treat” strategy for control of HIV and AIDS can lead to a decrease, not an increase, of multidrug-resistant viruses. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Aug;57(3):478-9.
  11. McGovern RA, Symons J, Poon AF, Harrigan PR, van Lelyveld SF, Hoepelman AI, van Ham PM, Dong W, Wensing AM, Nijhuis M. Maraviroc treatment in non-R5-HIV-1-infected patients results in the selection of extreme CXCR4-using variants with limited effect on the total viral setpoint.
  12. Brumme CJ, Huber KD, Dong W, Poon AF, Harrigan PR, Sluis-Cremer N. Replication fitness of multiple nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase-resistant HIV-1 variants in the presence of etravirine measured by 454 deep sequencing. J Virol. 2013 Aug;87(15):8805-7.
  13. Lee GQ, Harrigan PR, Dong W, Poon AF, Heera J, Demarest J, Rinehart A, Chapman D, Valdez H, Portsmouth S. Comparison of population and 454 “deep” sequence analysis for HIV type 1 tropism versus the original trofile assay in non-B subtypes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Jun;29(6):979-84.
  14. Nosyk B, Colley G, Yip B, Chan K, Heath K, Lima VD, Gilbert M, Hogg RS, Harrigan PR, Montaner JS; STOP HIV/AIDS Study Group. Application and validation of case-finding algorithms for identifying individuals with human immunodeficiency virus from administrative data in British Columbia, Canada. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54416.
  15. McLaughlin S, Swenson LC, Hu S, Hughes P, Harrigan PR, Coombs RW, Frenkel LM. Development of a novel codon-specific polymerase chain reaction for the detection of CXCR4-utilizing HIV type 1 subtype B. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 May;29(5):814-25.
  16. Recordon-Pinson P, Raymond S, Bellecave P, Marcelin AG, Soulie C, Descamps D, Calvez V, Harrigan PR, Fleury H, Izopet J, Masquelier B; S AC11 Resistance Study Group. HIV-1 dynamics and coreceptor usage in Maraviroc-treated patients with ongoing replication. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Feb;57(2):930-5.
  17. Lima VD, Le A, Nosyk B, Barrios R, Yip B, Hogg RS, Harrigan PR, Montaner JS.Development and Validation of a Composite Programmatic Assessment Tool for HIV Therapy. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47859.
  18. Knapp DJ, McGovern RA, Dong W, Poon AF, Swenson LC, Zhong X, Woods CK, Harrigan PR. Factors influencing the sensitivity and specificity of conventional sequencing in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 tropism testing. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Nov 21.
  19. Poon AF, Swenson LC, Bunnik EM, Edo-Matas D, Schuitemaker H, van ‘t Wout AB, Harrigan PR. Reconstructing the Dynamics of HIV Evolution within Hosts from Serial Deep Sequence Data. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012 Nov;8(11):e1002753.
  20. McGovern RA, Thielen A, Portsmouth S, Mo T, Dong W, Woods CK, Zhong X, Brumme CJ, Chapman D, Lewis M, James I, Heera J, Valdez H, Harrigan PR. Population-based sequencing of the V3-loop can predict the virological response to maraviroc in treatment-naive patients of the MERIT trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Nov 1;61(3):279-86.
  21. Carlson JM, Brumme CJ, Martin E, Listgarten J, Brockman MA, Le AQ, Chui CK, Cotton LA, Knapp DJ, Riddler SA, Haubrich R, Nelson G, Pfeifer N, Deziel CE, Heckerman D, Apps R, Carrington M, Mallal S, Harrigan PR, John M, Brumme ZL; the International HIV Adaptation Collaborative. Correlates of Protective Cellular Immunity Revealed by Analysis of Population-Level Immune Escape Pathways in HIV-1. J Virol. 2012 Dec;86(24):13202-13216.
  22. Lee GQ, Swenson LC, Poon AF, Martin JN, Hatano H, Deeks SG, Harrigan PR. Prolonged and substantial discordance in prevalence of raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 in plasma versus PBMC samples revealed by 454 “deep” sequencing. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46181.
  23. Brumme CJ, Swenson LC, Wynhoven B, Yip B, Skinner S, Lima VD, Montaner JS, Harrigan PR. Technical and regulatory shortcomings of the TaqMan version 1 HIV viral load assay. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43882.
  24. McGovern RA, Thielen A, Portsmouth S, Mo T, Dong W, Woods CK, Zhong X, Brumme CJ, Chapman D, Lewis M, James I, Heera J, Valdez H, Harrigan PR. Population-based Sequencing of the V3-loop can Predict the Virological Response to Maraviroc in Treatment-naïve Patients of the MERIT Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Jul 11.
  25. McLaren PJ, Ripke S, Pelak K, Weintrob AC, Patsopoulos NA, Jia X, Erlich RL, Lennon NJ, Kadie CM, Heckerman D, Gupta N, Haas DW, Deeks SG, Pereyra F, Walker BD, de Bakker PI; International HIV Controllers Study. Fine-mapping classical HLA variation associated with durable host control of HIV-1 infection in African Americans. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 Oct 1;21(19):4334-47.
  26. Brockman MA, Chopera DR, Olvera A, Brumme CJ, Sela J, Markle TJ, Martin E, Carlson JM, Le AQ, McGovern R, Cheung PK, Kelleher AD, Jessen H, Markowitz M, Rosenberg E, Frahm N, Sanchez J, Mallal S, John M, Harrigan PR, Heckerman D, Brander C, Walker BD, Brumme ZL. Uncommon pathways of immune escape attenuate HIV-1 integrase replication capacity. J Virol. 2012 Jun;86(12):6913-23.
  27. Knapp DJ, Brumme ZL, Huang SY, Wynhoven B, Dong WW, Mo T, Harrigan PR, Brumme CJ. Increasingly successful highly active antiretroviral therapy delays the emergence of new HLA class I-associated escape mutations in HIV-1. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;54(11):1652-9.
  28. Grennan JT, Loutfy MR, Su D, Harrigan PR, Cooper C, Klein M, Machouf N, Montaner JS, Rourke S, Tsoukas C, Hogg B, Raboud J; CANOC Collaboration. Magnitude of virologic blips is associated with a higher risk for virologic rebound in HIV-infected individuals: a recurrent events analysis. J Infect Dis. 2012 Apr 15;205(8):1230-8.
  29. Jitratkosol MH, Sattha B, Maan EJ, Gadawski I, Harrigan PR, Forbes JC, Alimenti A, van Schalkwyk J, Money DM, Côté HC; CIHR Emerging Team Grant on HIV Therapy and Aging (CARMA). Blood mitochondrial DNA mutations in HIV-infected women and their infants exposed to HAART during pregnancy. AIDS. 2012 Mar 27;26(6):675-83.
  30. Woods CK, Brumme CJ, Liu TF, Chui CK, Chu AL, Wynhoven B, Hall TA, Trevino C, Shafer RW, Harrigan PR. Automating HIV drug resistance genotyping with RECall, a freely accessible sequence analysis tool. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jun;50(6):1936-42.
  31. Jitratkosol MH, Sattha B, Maan EJ, Gadawski I, Harrigan PR, Forbes JC, Alimenti A, van Schalkwyk J, Money DM, Côté HC; CIHR Emerging Team Grant on HIV Therapy and Aging (CARMA). Blood mitochondrial DNA mutations in HIV-infected women and their infants exposed to HAART during pregnancy. AIDS. 2012 Mar 27;26(6):675-83.
  32. Jitratkosol MH, Sattha B, Maan E, Gadawski I, Harrigan PR, Forbes J, Alimenti A, Van Schalkwyk J, Money D, Côté HC; and the CIHR Emerging team grant on HIV therapy and aging: CARMA. Blood mitochondrial DNA mutations in HIV-infected women and their infants exposed to highly active antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. AIDS. 2012 Jan 20.
  33. Gonzalez-Serna A, McGovern RA, Harrigan PR, Vidal F, Poon AF, Ferrando-Martinez S, Abad MA, Genebat M, Leal M, Ruiz-Mateos E. Correlation of the virological response to short-term maraviroc monotherapy with standard and deep-sequencing-based genotypic tropism prediction methods. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Mar;56(3):1202-7.
  34. Swenson LC, Mo T, Dong WW, Zhong X, Woods CK, Thielen A, Jensen MA, Knapp DJ, Chapman D, Portsmouth S, Lewis M, James I, Heera J, Valdez H, Harrigan PR. Deep V3 sequencing for HIV type 1 tropism in treatment-naive patients: a reanalysis of the MERIT trial of maraviroc. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Oct;53(7):732-42.
  35. Poon AF, McGovern RA, Mo T, Knapp DJ, Brenner B, Routy JP, Wainberg MA, Harrigan PR. Dates of HIV infection can be estimated for seroprevalent patients by coalescent analysis of serial next-generation sequencing data. AIDS. 2011 Oct 23;25(16):2019-26.
  36. Hoffmann D, Garcia AD, Harrigan PR, Johnston IC, Nakasone T, García-Lerma JG, Heneine W. Measuring enzymatic HIV-1 susceptibility to two reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a rapid and simple approach to HIV-1 drug-resistance testing. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22019. Epub 2011 Jul 20.
  37. Bunnik EM, Swenson LC, Edo-Matas D, Huang W, Dong W, Frantzell A, Petropoulos CJ, Coakley E, Schuitemaker H, Harrigan PR, van ‘t Wout AB. Detection of inferred CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 variants and evolutionary intermediates using ultra-deep pyrosequencing. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Jun;7(6):e1002106.
  38. Greig J, du Cros P, Klarkowski D, Mills C, Jørgensen S, Harrigan PR, O’Brien DP. Viral load testing in a resource-limited setting: quality control is critical. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011 May 12;14:23.
  39. Thielen A, Lengauer T, Swenson LC, Dong WW, McGovern RA, Lewis M, James I, Heera J, Valdez H, Harrigan PR. Mutations in gp41 are correlated with coreceptor tropism but do not improve prediction methods substantially. Antivir Ther. 2011;16(3):319-28.
  40. Swenson LC, Pollock G, Wynhoven B, Mo T, Dong W, Hogg RS, Montaner JS, Harrigan PR. “Dynamic range” of inferred phenotypic HIV drug resistance values in clinical practice. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 24;6(2):e17402.
  41. Swenson LC, Mo T, Dong WW, Zhong X, Woods CK, Jensen MA, Thielen A, Chapman D, Lewis M, James I, Heera J, Valdez H, Harrigan PR. Deep sequencing to infer HIV-1 co-receptor usage: application to three clinical trials of maraviroc in treatment-experienced patients. J Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 15;203(2):237-45.
  42. McGovern RA, Harrigan PR, Swenson LC. Genotypic inference of HIV-1 tropism using population-based sequencing of V3. J Vis Exp. 2010 Dec 27;(46). pii: 2531. doi: 10.3791/2531.
  43. Archer J, Rambaut A, Taillon BE, Harrigan PR, Lewis M, Robertson DL. The evolutionary analysis of emerging low frequency HIV-1 CXCR4 using variants through time–an ultra-deep approach. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Dec 16;6(12):e1001022.
  44. Harrigan PR, Geretti AM. Genotypic tropism testing: evidence-based or leap of faith? AIDS. 2011 Jan 14;25(2):257-64.



  • Ph.D. (Biochemistry), University of British Columbia, 1992
  • M.Sc. (Biochemistry), University of British Columbia, 1987
  • B.Sc.(Hons) (Biochemistry), University of British columbia, 1985

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